Impacts: external resources

We have collated related reports and studies from organisations across the world which we found helpful when conducting our own research.

Impacts of Europe’s Changing Climate

The main part of this report summarises the relevance, past trends and future projections for about 40 indicators. The indicators cover atmosphere and climate, the cryosphere, marine systems, terrestrial systems and biodiversity, agriculture and forestry, soil, water quantity (including floods and droughts), water quality and fresh water ecology, and human health. The report also addresses adaptation and the economics of climate change impacts and adaptation strategies and policies, and data availability and uncertainty. It highlights that vulnerable regions and sectors vary widely across Europe.

'Mini-Stern' for Manchester: Economic impact on Manchester City Region and the North West

Deloitte completed the ‘mini-Stern’ for Manchester, commissioned by Manchester Enterprises (Manchester's Economic Development Agency) and The North West of England Development Agency. It assesses the local economic impacts of UK and  EU legislation on climate change for the city region.

By looking at the strengths, opportunities and assets within the city region, the report signals the intent to position the city-region at the forefront of climate change adaptation at sub-regional level. It details ten priorities including areas such as building the climate change technology sector, increasing public education and skills, and strengthening spatial planning.

Climate Change in the North West

The Northwest Climate Group is a partnership of public, private and NGO organisations that works to ensure that climate change is embedded in decision-making in the region. This document draws together material produced over recent years, to consider what climate change will mean for the North West of England. It looks at global physical changes before considering specific impacts in the north west and discusses the UKCIP (2000) socio-economic scenarios for the region. It looks at the region’s contribution to greenhouse gas emissions before outlining physical impacts such as flooding, biodiversity, human health, water and transport as well as detailing socio-economic impacts in utilities, industry, tourism and construction, amongst others. The further information section is somewhat outdated although the document nonetheless brings together a wide range of previously disparate sources.

Design for future climate: opportunities for adaptation in the built environment

Written by a practising architect, this report identifies the key issues that climate change poses to the construction industry and sets out the case for adaptation in this sector. The report looks at three areas: thermal comfort and energy performance; issues affecting construction (particularly from storm damage); and managing water.

The European Environment, State and Outlook 2010: Adapting to Climate Change

The European Environment Agency provides detailed scientific data, information and assessments to prepare the ground for coherent action and joint response to tackle urban issues, such as climate change. Its website contains numerous reports, maps, graphs and data. The State of the Environment report synthesises this and other research to give an overview of the key challenges that climate change poses to Europe, the key drivers of change and variations across regions. It uses the data to assess vulnerabilities in, amongst others, urban environments. It covers adaptation options and uses economic assessments to provide summaries of damage costs and the cost of implementing adaptation options across a range of sectors. The final section of this report covers existing policy frameworks to support adaptation options at European level.

The financial risks of climate change: Examining the financial implications of climate change using climate models and insurance catastrophe risk models

This study uses state-of-the-art modelling techniques (climate scenarios with catastrophe models) combined with expert knowledge in the fields of climate, meteorology, hydrology and actuarial science to assess the financial risks of climate change. The report provides a detailed analysis on insured risk for insurers and other stakeholders through its effects on precipitation-induced inland floods in Great Britain, winter windstorms in the United Kingdom, and typhoons in China.

The Stern Review, The Economics of Climate Change

This comprehensive review on the economics of climate change was carried out by Sir Nicholas Stern. The first half of the Review focuses on the impacts and risks arising from uncontrolled climate change, and on the costs and opportunities associated with action to tackle it. The economic models do not offer precise forecasts but illustrate the scale of effects that might be seen. The Review estimates that the dangers could be equivalent to 20 per cent of GDP although it sees economic opportunities in the transition to a low carbon economy. Part V deals with policies for adaptation in the developed and developing world and ultimately views adaptation as more cost-effective in the long-term.